- Hunt S.A.
- Abraham W.T.
- Chin M.H.
- et al.
Acute Kidney Injury
- Klein L.
- Massie B.M.
- Leimberger J.D.
- et al.
- Fliser D.
- Laville M.
- Covic A.
- et al.
Medical Management of Acute Renal Failure Complications—for the Non-nephrologist
- Adler Y.
- Charron P.
- Imazio M.
- et al.
Renal Replacement Therapy for the Management of Acute Renal Failure Complications—for the Non-nephrologist
Access for dialysis in acute renal failure
CRRT vs IHD
Anticoagulation and dialysis
- •type 1 (acute cardiorenal syndrome)—acute HF, or cardiac dysfunction, results in AKI;
- •type 2 (chronic cardiorenal syndrome)—chronic cardiac dysfunction causes progressive CKD;
- •type 3 (acute renocardiac syndrome)—abrupt and primary worsening of kidney function due, for example, to renal ischemia or glomerulonephritis causes acute cardiac dysfunction, which may be manifested by HF;
- •type 4 (chronic renocardiac syndrome)—primary CKD contributes to cardiac dysfunction, which may be manifested by coronary disease, HF, or arrhythmia; and
- •type 5 (systemic diseases)—acute or chronic systemic disorders (eg, sepsis or diabetes mellitus) that cause both cardiac and renal dysfunction.
CRS type 1
CRS type 2
CRS type 3
- Hirsch A.T.
- Haskal Z.J.
- Hertzer N.R.
- et al.
- Hirsch A.T.
- Haskal Z.J.
- Hertzer N.R.
- et al.
CRS type 4
CRS type 5
|Infective endocarditis||Systemic lupus erythematosus|
|Drugs/Toxins (eg, cocaine, CCB, chemotherapy)||Diabetes mellitus|
|Vasculitis/Thrombotic micro-angiopathy||Chronic liver disease|
- ACC/AHA 2005 guideline update for the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure in the adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure): developed in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2005; 112: e154-e235
- 2017 comprehensive update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Heart Failure.Can J Cardiol. 2017; 33: 1342-1433
- Renal impairment, worsening renal function, and outcome in patients with heart failure: an updated meta-analysis.Eur Heart J. 2014; 35: 455-469
- Terminology and definition of changes renal function in heart failure.Eur Heart J. 2014; 34: 3413-3416
- Global, regional, and national burden of chronic kidney disease.a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2020; 395 (1990–2017): 709-733
- The growth of acute kidney injury: a rising tide or just closer attention to detail?.Kidney Int. 2015; 87: 46-61
- KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury.Kidney Int Suppl. 2012; 2: 1-138
- Global epidemiology and outcomes of acute kidney injury.Nat Rev Nephrol. 2018; 14: 607-625
- Acute Kidney Injury Advisory Group of the American Society of Nephrology. World incidence of AKI: a meta-analysis.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013; 8: 1482-1493
- Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005; 16: 3365-3370
- Acute kidney disease and renal recovery: consensus report of the Acute Disease Quality Initiative (ADQI) 16 workgroup.Nat Rev Nephrol. 2017; 13: 241-257
- Acute renal failure in critically ill patients: a multinational, multicenter study.JAMA. 2005; 294: 813-818
- Acute kidney injury in sepsis.Intensive Care Med. 2017; 43: 816-828
- Acute kidney injury definition and diagnosis: a narrative review.J Clin Med. 2018; 7: 307
- Cardio-renal syndromes: report from the Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative.Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 703-711
- Cardiorenal interactions: insights from the ESCAPE trial.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51: 1268-1274
- The prognostic importance of different definitions of worsening renal function in congestive heart failure.J Card Fail. 2002; 8: 136-141
- Admission or changes in renal function during hospitalization for worsening heart failure predict postdischarge survival: results from the Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Intravenous Milrinone for exacerbations of Chronic Heart Failure (OPTIME-CHF).Circ Heart Fail. 2008; 1: 25-33
- Acute Kidney Injury Network: report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury.Crit Care. 2007; 11: R31
- Are small changes in serum creatinine an important risk factor?.Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2005; 14: 265-270
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor–associated elevations in serum creatinine: Is this a cause for concern?.Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160: 685-693
- Acute kidney injury: a problem of definition.Lancet. 2017; 389: 779
- Canadian Society of Nephrology commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury.Am J Kidney Dis. 2013; 61: 673-685
- KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury.Am J Kidney Dis. 2013; 61: 649
- A European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) position statement on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guidelines on acute kidney injury: part 1: definitions, conservative management and contrast-induced nephropathy.Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012; 27: 4263
- Acute renal failure.Lancet. 2005; 365: 417-430
- Acute renal failure.BMJ. 2006; 333: 786-790
- Pathophysiology of pre-renal azotemia.Kidney Int. 1998; 53: 512-523
- Renal autoregulation in health and disease.Physiol Rev. 2015; 95: 405-511
- Practical approach to detection and management of acute kidney injury in critically ill patient.J Intensive Care. 2017; 5: 57
- Classical renin-angiotensin system in kidney physiology.Compr Physiol. 2014; 4: 1201-1228
- Decreased effective blood volume in edematous disorders: What does this mean?.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007; 18: 2028-2031
- Renal sodium avidity in heart failure: from pathophysiology to treatment strategies.Eur Heart J. 2017; 38: 1872-1882
- Diuretic strategies in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 797-805
- A systematic review and meta-analysis of metolazone compared to chlorothiazide for treatment of acute decompensated heart failure.Pharmacotherapy. 2020; 40: 924-935
- Diuretics: a review and update.J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2014; 19: 5-13
- Cardiorenal syndrome: classification, pathophysiologoy, diagnosis, and treatment sstrategies: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.Circulation. 2019; 139: e840-e878
- Diuretic response in acute heart failure: clinical characteristics and prognostic significance.Eur Heart J. 2014; 35: 1284-1293
- Diuretic response in acute heart failure-an analysis from ASCEND-HF.Am Heart J. 2015; 170: 313-321
- Diuretic therapy.N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 387-395
- Differential upregulation of rat Na-K-Cl cotransporter, rBSC1, mRNA in the thick ascending limb of Henle in different pathological conditions.Kidney Int. 1998; 54: 877-888
- Response of the kidney to furosemide, I: effects of salt intake and renal compensation.J Lab Clin Med. 1983; 102: 450-458
- Extreme hyperkalemia.South Med J. 2005; 98: 729-732
- Hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients: causes, adequacy of treatment, and results of an attempt to improve physician compliance with published therapy guidelines.Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158: 917-924
- Hyperkalemia revisited.Tex Heart Inst J. 2006; 33: 40-47
- Controversial issues in the treatment of hyperkalemia.Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003; 18: 2215-2218
- Electrocardiographic manifestations of severe hyperkalemia.J Electrocardiol. 2018; 51: 814
- Therapeutic approach to hyperkalemia.Nephron. 2002; 92: 33-40
- Iatrogenic hypoglycaemia following glucose-insulin infusions for the treatment of hyperkalaemia.Clin Endocrinol. 2021; 94: 176
- Secondary prevention of hyperkalemia with sodium polystyrene sulfonate in cardiac and kidney patients on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition therapy.Clin Cardiol. 2012; 35: 32-36
- PEARL-HF: prevention of hyperkalemia in patients with heart failure using a novel polymeric potassium binder, RLY5016.FutureCardiol. 2012; 8: 17-28
- Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate in hyperkalemia.N Engl J Med. 2015; 372: 222-231
- Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010; 6 (28): 274
- The effects of acid-base disturbances on cardiovascular and pulmonary function.Kidney Int. 1972; 1: 375-389
- Rapid desensitization and uncoupling of human beta adrenergic receptors in an in vitro model of lactic acidosis.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984; 59: 398-404
- Acidosis and arrhythmias in cardiac muscle.Cardiovasc Res. 1994; 28: 1312-1319
- Effect of acute ketoacidosis on the myocardium in diabetes.Am J Med Sci. 1996; 311: 61-64
- Uremia: a historical reappraisal of what happened.Clin Nephrol. 2018; 89: 305-313
- Approaches to uremia.JASN. 2014; 25: 2151-2158
- Uremic pericarditis clinical features and management.Circulation. 1968; 38: 582-591
- Pericardial involvement in end-stage renal disease.Am J Med Sci. 2003; 325: 228
- 2015 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pericardial diseases: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) endorsed by: the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS).Eur Heart J. 2015; 36: 2921-2964
- Management of gout and hyperuricemia in CKD.Am J Kidney Dis. 2017; 70: 422-439
- Uremic encephalopathy.Kidney Int. 2022; 101: 27-241
- Uremic encephalopathy and other brain disorders associated with renal failure.Semin Neurol. 2011; 31: 139-143
- Mechanisms underlying uremic encephalopathy.Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2010; 22: 206-211
- Biochemistry of uremia.J Med Educ. 1962; 37: 408
- Effects of urea loading in patients with far-advanced renal failure.Mayo Clin Proc. 1972; 47: 21-29
- Excerpts from the USRDS 2009 annual data report: atlas of end-stage renal disease in the United States.Am J Kidney Dis. 2010; 1: S1-A7
- Defining the role of peritoneal dialysis in management of congestive heart failure.Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2019; 17: 533-543
Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2013;3(suppl 1):1-150.
- III. NKF-K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Vascular Access: update 2000.Am J Kidney Dis. 2001; 37: S137-S181
- Epidemiology of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: the multinational AKI-EPI study.Intensive Care Med. 2015; 41: 1411-1423
- Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration versus intermittent haemodialysis for acute renal failure in patients with multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome: a multicentre randomised trial.Lancet. 2006; 368: 379-385
- The effect of continuous versus intermittent renal replacement therapy on the outcome of critically ill patients with acute renal failure (CONVINT): a prospective randomized controlled trial.Crit Care. 2014; 18: R11
- Continuous versus intermittent renal replacement therapy for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis.Crit Care Med. 2008; 36: 610-617
- Continuous renal replacement therapy versus intermittent hemodialysis in intensive care patients: impact on mortality and renal recovery.Intensive Care Med. 2016; 42: 1408-1417
- Choice of renal replacement therapy modality and dialysis dependence after acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Intensive Care Med. 2013; 39: 987-997
- Extended daily dialysis versus continuous renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis.Am J Kidney Dis. 2015; 66: 322-330
- Prolonged daily intermittent renal replacement therapy in ICU patients by ICU nurses and ICU physicians.Int J Artif Organs. 2004; 27: 380-387
- Current state of the art for renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.Intensive Care Med. 2017; 43: 841-854
- Fluid overload is associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with renal replacement therapy: data from the prospective FINNAKI study.Crit Care. 2012; 16: R197
- Ultrafiltration versus intravenous diuretics for patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 13 (49): 675-683
- Ultrafiltration in decompensated heart failure with cardiorenal syndrome.N Engl J Med. 2012; 367: 2296-2304
- Renal replacement therapy in critical care.BJA Education. 2017; 17: 88-93
- Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and severe kidney disease or undergoing hemodialysis.Am J Med. 2019; 132: 1078-1083
- The kidney in heart failure: an update.Eur Heart J. 2015; 36: 1437-1444
- Cardiorenal syndrome revisited.Circulation. 2018; 138: 929-944
- The association among renal insufficiency, pharmacotherapy, and outcomes in 6,427 patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 44: 1587
- Epidemiology of cardio-renal syndromes: workgroup statements from the 7th ADQI Consensus Conference.Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010; 25: 1406-1416
- Association of chronic kidney disease with outcomes in chronic heart failure: a propensity-matched study.Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009; 24: 186-193
- Cardiorenal syndrome and heart failure—challenges and opportunities.Can J Cardiol. 2019; 35: 1208-1219
- Is worsening renal function an ominous prognostic sign in patients with acute heart failure? The role of congestion and its interaction with renal function.Circ Heart Fail. 2012; 5: 54-62
- Cardiorenal syndrome.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 52: 1527-1539
- Cardiorenal syndrome: an overview.Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2018; 25: 382-390
- Cardiorenal syndrome—current understanding and future perspectives.Nat Rev Nephrol. 2014; 10: 48-55
- Cardiorenal syndrome: pathophysiology and potential targets for clinical management.Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013; 9: 99-111
- Decreased cardiac output, venous congestion and the association with renal impairment in patients with cardiac dysfunction.Eur J Heart Fail. 2007; 9: 872-878
- Importance of venous congestion for worsening of renal function in advanced decompensated heart failure.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 589-596
- Increased central venous pressure is associated with impaired renal function and mortality in a broad spectrum of patients with cardiovascular disease.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 582-588
- Pathophysiologic targets in the early phase of acute heart failure syndromes.Am J Cardiol. 2005; 96: 11-17
- Role of diminished renal function in cardiovascular mortality: marker or pathogenetic factor?.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47: 1-8
- The predictive value of short-term changes in hemoglobin concentration in patients presenting with acute decompensated heart failure.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013; 61: 1973-1981
- Relation between dose of loop diuretics and outcomes in a heart failure population: results of the ESCAPE trial.Eur J Heart Fail. 2007; 9: 1064-1069
- Diuretic resistance predicts mortality in patients with advanced heart failure.Am Heart J. 2002; 144: 31-38
- Clinical trial of bumetanide versus furosemide in patients with congestive heart failure.J Clin Pharmacol. 1981; 11: 688-690
- Metolazone in treatment of severe refractory congestive cardiac failure.Lancet. 1990; 335: 29-31
- Diuretic and renal effects of spironolactone and heart failure hospitalizations: a TOPCAT Americas analysis.Eur J Heart Fail. 2020; 22: 1600-1610
- Effects of oral tolvaptan in patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure: the EVEREST Outcome Trial.JAMA. 2007; 297: 1319-1331
- Clinical course of patients with hyponatremia and decompensated systolic heart failure and the effect of vasopressin receptor antagonism with tolvaptan.J Card Fail. 2013; 19: 390-397
- Cardiac output monitoring: how to choose the optimal method for the individual patient.Curr Opin Crit Care. 2018; 24: 165-172
- Heart failure etiology and response to milrinone in decompensated heart failure: results from the OPTIME-CHF study.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 41: 997-1003
- Clinical trials update from the American Heart Association: REPAIR-AMI, ASTAMI, JELIS, MEGA, REVIVE-II, SURVIVE, and PROACTIVE.Eur J Heart Fail. 2006; 8: 105-110
- Short-term intravenous milrinone for acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2002; 287: 1541-1547
- Low-dose dopamine or low-dose nesiritide in acute heart failure with renal dysfunction: the ROSE acute heart failure randomized trial.JAMA. 2013; 310: 2533-2543
- Efficacy and safety of high dose versus low dose furosemide with or without dopamine infusion: the Dopamine in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure II (DAD-HF II) trial.Int J Cardiol. 2014; 172: 115-121
- Randomised trial of high-dose isosorbide dinitrate plus low-dose furosemide versus high-dose furosemide plus low-dose isosorbide dinitrate in severe pulmonary oedema.Lancet. 1998; 351: 389-393
- Effect of nesiritide in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2011; 365: 32-43
- Effects of serelaxin in patients with acute heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 716-726
- Renal function as a predictor of outcome in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure.Circulation. 2006; 113: 671-678
- Renal dysfunction in patients with heart failure with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction impact of the new Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration Group formula.Circ Heart Fail. 2012; 5: 309-314
- Outcome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in a population-based study.N Engl J Med. 2006; 355: 260-269
- High right ventricular stroke work index is associated with worse kidney function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.Cardiorenal Med. 2018; 8: 123-129
- Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure.N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 293-302
- Kidney function and mortality among patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 17: 244-253
- Cardiovascular and renal outcomes with empagliflozin in heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 1413-1424
- Dapagliflozin in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 1995-2008
- Empagliflozin in heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction.N Engl J Med. 2021; 385: 1451-1461
- SGLT2 inhibitors for the prevention of kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019; 7: 845-854
- Association of SGLT2 inhibitors with cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.JAMA Cardiol. 2021; 6: 148-158
- Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: physiology and anesthetic implications.Anesthesiology. 2015; 122: 932-946
- The effect of acidosis on systolic Ca2+ and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.J Physiol. 2000; 529: 661-668
- Contraction and intracellular Ca2+, Na+, and H+ during acidosis in rat ventricular myocytes.Am J Physiol. 1992; 262: C348-C357
- Mild metabolic acidosis impairs the beta-adrenergic response in isolated human failing myocardium.Crit Care. 2012; 16: R153
- Hemodynamic consequences of severe lactic acidosis in shock states: from bench to bedside.Crit Care. 2015; 19: 175
- Perspective: a dynamics-based classification of ventricular arrhythmias.J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015; 82: 136-152
- Effects of uremic serum on isolated cardiac myocyte calcium cycling and contractile function.Kidney Int. 2001; 60: 2367-2376
- Uremic pericarditis as a cause of cardiac tamponade.Circulation. 1976; 53: 896-901
- Treatment of uremic pericarditis and pericardial effusion.Am J Kidney Dis. 1987; 10: 2-8
- The pathogenesis of acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertension.N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 17-22
- ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): a collaborative report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Interventional Radiology, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease).J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47: e1-e192
- Hypertension Canada’s 2018 guidelines for diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults and children.Can J Cardiol. 2018; 34: 506-525
- Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic review.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 17: 2034-2047
- The clinical epidemiology of cardiac disease in chronic renal failure.J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999; 10: 1606-1615
- Modification of cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients: an evidence-based review.Hemodial Int. 2007; 11: 1-14
- The bleeding risk in chronic haemodialysis: preventive strategies in high-risk patients.Neth J Med. 1996; 48: 198-207
- Chronic kidney disease and bleeding risk in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a cohort study.J Thromb Haemost. 2018; 16: 65-73
- Impact of chronic kidney disease on long-term ischemic and bleeding outcomes in medically managed patients with acute coronary syndromes: insights from the TRILOGY ACS Trial.Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2016; 5: 443-454
- P2y12-ADP receptor blockade in chronic kidney disease patients with acute coronary syndromes.Circulation. 2018; 138: 1582-1596
- Relation between estimated glomerular filtration rate and composition of coronary arterial atherosclerotic plaques.Am J Cardiol. 2012; 109: 1131-1136
- Renal function, atherothrombosis extent, and outcomes in high-risk patients.Am Heart J. 2009; 158: 141-148
Ethics Statement: The research reported in this article adheres to all relevant ethical guidelines.
See page 881 for disclosure information.
User LicenseCreative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial – NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) |
For non-commercial purposes:
- Read, print & download
- Redistribute or republish the final article
- Text & data mine
- Translate the article (private use only, not for distribution)
- Reuse portions or extracts from the article in other works
- Sell or re-use for commercial purposes
- Distribute translations or adaptations of the article
Elsevier's open access license policy